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You can monitor stubs execution to check against certain expectations, such as the number of calls to a given stub or stubs call sequence. Expectations should be defined inside the test cases and are verified just after the test case execution is finished. If the expectation is not met, then a suitable message is generated and output to the results. All expectations are removed at the end of test case execution after the outcome has been verified.

You can configure stub expectations for subs that are created with a test configuration where one of the following options is enabled:

  • Enable Stub Callbacks
  • Enable Stub API (deprecated)

See Dynamic Stubs Configuration for additional information.

The following table describes the available expectation types:    

ExpectationDescription
CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS(<func-id>, <value>)

The number of calls to the <func-id> stub is expected to be equal to <value>.

CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS_MORE_THAN(<func-id>, <value>)

The number of calls to the <func-id> stub is expected to be greater than <value>.

CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS_LESS_THAN(<func-id>, <value>)

The number of calls to the <func-id> stub is expected to be less than <value>.

CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS_IN_RANGE(<func-id>,<min>,<max>)

The number of calls to the <func-id> stub is expected to be greater than <min> but less than <max>.

CPPTEST_EXPECT_CALL_SEQUENCE()
[Add<func-id>|AddNTimes<func-id>]
Specified the expected sequence for calls made to the stubs

Examples

The following examples present typical ways to set stub definition expectations.

Number of Stub Calls Expectations

The API that sets expectations for the number of stub calls is the same for C and C++. 

  • Defining an expectation for the exact number of calls to the stub:
    In the following example, the "foo" stub is expected to be called exactly 3 times.
    CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS("foo",3);
     
  • Defining an expectation for the stub call number to be greater than value:
    In the following example, the "foo" stub is expected to be called more than 3 times.
    CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS_MORE_THAN("foo",3);
     
  • Defining an expectation for the stub call number to be lower than value:
    In the following example, the "foo" stub is expected to be called less than 3 times.
    CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS_LESS_THAN("foo",3);

  • Defining an expectation for the stub call number to be in range:
    In the following example, the "foo" stub is expected to be called between 3 and 7 times.
    CPPTEST_EXPECT_NCALLS_IN_RANGE("foo",3, 7);

Sequence of Stub Calls Expectation

Defining an expectation for the stub call sequence:

The following example sets expectations for a foo -> goo -> foo (3times) -> goo stub call sequence:

[C]   CPPTEST_EXPECT_CALL_SEQUENCE()->Add("foo")->Add(goo")->AddNTimes("foo", 3)->Add("goo");
[C++] CPPTEST_EXPECT_CALL_SEQUENCE().Add("foo").Add(goo").AddNTimes("foo", 3).Add("goo");

The defined expectation as shown in this example is violated in the following situations:

  • Stub specified in the sequence was not called in the predicted order
  • At the end of the test case, some functions in the expected sequence were not called
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